Intro

The perception of depth by Simultaneous Sectional Suppression and Retinal Dominance (SSSRD)

Vision is the most precious sense that we possess. It's evolution over millions of years has reached an unthinkable level of sophistication, yet the classic and contemporary interpretation of how we perceive the world around us remains largely theoretical, and logically flawed. This book adopts a completely new approach in analysing the perception of space. All findings are proven throughout by natural observation and the results provide a new concept as to how we perceive our worlds. The fundamental framework structure of this concept is SSSRD (Simultaneous Sectional Suppression and Retinal Dominance) in conjunction with the Cyclopean or 'Cortex' eye. The Framework structure traces the dominant, retinal-sectional and subsectional snapshots of each eye, along the visual pathways to the visual cortex; belying the classic and contemporary theory of retinal correspondence and fusion. This design enriches the perception of space with stereovision and a mathematical computation that instantly informs the brain of the depth and distance of all targets in the scene. It also provides the structure by which absolute visual direction and motion processing is achieved.

"This is not just very important to fully understand for people in visual perception and visual neuroscience but in particular people in psychology and psychiatry, the reason being the mental health of children in particular very young children. The explosive rise in mental health problems in children and young people is directly mirrored by the rise availability and use of close up vision viewing devices for children. When viewing these close up vision viewing devices practically the entire complex brain cell structure of vision is blocked. So it is very important for people in psychology and psychiatry to understand how important it is to ensure this incredibly complex sensitive brain cell structure of vision be allowed to mature without brain cell damage, before it is too late. Any brain cell damage results in mental illness in some form.

According to conventional binocular theory, objects outside of the fixation point in both eyes are only perceived as single if they fall within Panum's fusional area (PFA), and stereo depth is derived from the small retinal disparities between these points close to the horopter. The perception of binocular depth is thus assumed to belong only to species with heavily overlapping monocular fields, with other creatures, such as most birds, possessing no real depth perception. Why then do we not constantly perceive diplopia for objects significantly in front of and either side of fixation? Also, how do birds manage to catch insects in mid-flight or fly at speed through the branches of a tree without incident if they possess stereoscopic depth perception?

Following investigation under natural viewing conditions, we propose that the binocularly overlapping visual fields of each eye are divided into four sectional areas, two behind and two in front of the fixation point and separated by the visual axis of the non-dominant eye. Under natural viewing, each of these sectional areas is perceived by only one eye, the corresponding sections in the other eye being simultaneously suppressed. The subsequent alignment of the visual axes within the cortex eye allows the depth relative to the fixation point to be extracted.

This theory better explains how we are able to perceive depth without 'fusion', and indicates that the visual system of both predator and prey species are not fundamentally different."

-Professor Roger S. Anderson

Dept. of Visual Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London, UK & School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine, UK

SSSRD / The Cortex Eye

"SSSRD and the Cortex Eye" (Available on Amazon)

This book explains and illustrates the vision process in an entirely new light, proving an entirely concept of how depth perception is achieved, and it so contradicts virtually all the conventional theoretical understanding of visual perception. It demonstrates how the image received by each retina is divided by natural retinal boundaries. These boundaries create dominant and suppressed retinal-sections in each retina. The coordination between the two eyes results in retinal-sections of one eye becoming dominant while the corresponding retinal-sections in the other eye simultaneously become suppressed. 

This book explains how these dominant areas are transmitted along the visual pathways to the visual cortex where they are assembled into a single image in the visual cortex. It describes how these assembled dominant retinal-sections create a stereo image and how the vantage angle of each eye is retained in these sectional areas. It also explains how the visual axes are retained and how important their function is in completing the structure of this image. Also, for the first time, this book defines and illustrates the function of the mythical cyclopean (cortex) eye. It explains how this eye has little value in visual direction (contrary to the view held by Hering) and illustrates for the first time how and why the function of this eye is the fundamental mathematical structure by which depth and distance judgement is coded. 

This book holds an invaluable resource for students of biology, psychology, visual perception, and neuroscience; in particular, researchers in the field of visual neuroscience.

1.2 Chapter Headings:

1. Introduction to Visual Perception
2. Framework structure of SSSRD
3. The Cyclopean (Cortex) Eye
4. Occlusion Zones
5. The Stereo Image and mathematical structure of Vision
6. Visual Direction, Optic Flow and Motion Processing


1.3 Abstract of each Chapter:

Chapter 1. 

The Classical theory of binocular vision is outlined and a short history of optics, from ancient times to the present day understanding, is described. Visual perception is outlined, along with a history of fusion and challenges to fusion. A basic rundown of the visual field is also part of this initial chapter, and the coordination that exists between the monocular and binocular visual fields.


Chapter 2. 
Simultaneous sectional suppression and retinal dominance (SSSRD) is introduced with an example of a changing focal point. I then look at the correspondence problem in detail and through examples of natural observation; I provide proof of SSSRD using occlusion tests. Retinal-section boundaries (including the two arising from the occlusion of the nose) are then looked at, and again proved through natural observation. SSSRD is integral with eye dominance and I describe how one can test for the dominant eye and interpret the processes involved in creating disparity in the optic array. The structure of the visual field using SSSRD is detailed and many examples using targets, pointing and occlusion illustrate the processes.


Chapter 3. 
This chapter introduces the cyclopean eye (which is thereafter referred to as the ‘cortex’ eye). It’s function in the binocular field and Hering’s unknowing observations of the rotating visual axes are touched upon. The importance of three-dimensional space and the adverse effects of two-dimensional viewing circumstances are documented. The formation of a single, cortex ‘axis’ after the rotation of the visual axes is described, as is the overlap created by the cortex eye, and the visual pathways from the retina.


Chapter 4. 
This chapter details occlusion zones and their roles in binocular vision. Through multiple examples of real-life occlusion tests, a new understanding of the coordination between the two eyes is unveiled. Transparency and transparent occlusion, integral to the single image cortex eye, are explained. The topics of retinal-sectional and sub-sectional areas arising from occlusion are explained. Previous analysis by Gibson and Julesz is re-examined and the workings and differences between cortex disparity and monocular disparity are offered. Illustrations also highlight the retinal-section and sub-sectional images along the visual pathways to the visual cortex.


Chapter 5. 
This chapter essentially seeks to answer the question of; how does the projection of a three-dimensional world onto a two-dimensional retina create a stereo image? I examine the change in vantage angles of targets during and after the process of the rotating visual axes in the cortex eye. The creation of the stereo image is outlined through natural observation tests, which highlight changing targets in sectional areas due to changes in the focal point. The six main sectional areas of the cortex eye are assessed and the mathematical computation of depth perception is proposed (with the integral ‘1/2 D’ distance movements of targets in space) along with the computation of occluded targets both nearer and further than the focal point. I explain why each visual axis has a separate rotation when forming a single central axis, and why changes in the angular view of the eyes results in changes in the parallel focal plane. 


Chapter 6. 
A brief history of visual direction and the role of the dominant eye, as an evolutionary mechanism, are explained. Changes in dominance from one eye to the other, and the resulting errors in the accuracy of visual direction are outlined. Clay pigeon shooting highlights this fact, thus a well-documented case in America is discussed and analysed. I examine the area of optic flow, where previously, vision scientists have completely misconstrued the way it is created. Optic flow generated by the cortex eye rapidly increases with forward motion caused by the occurrence of the overlap. Motion detection and processing, and how we distinguish what is moving from what is static, is a topic approached in the later part of this chapter. I also explain why the sectional images received by the retina are not just vertically inverted, but horizontally reversed, along with the structural design of SSSRD. The cortex eye functions without interfering with visual direction or creating a correspondence problem.
 

Visual Direction

 A Brief History 

The laws of visual direction describe a method by which the visual system estimates the visual directions of binocular targets. Alhazen, Wells, and Hering originally formulated this method. Ono revised the Laws in 1991 and Howard and Rogers again revised them in 1995. This method is known as “Hering’s Laws of Visual Direction” (1942). One of Hering’s laws, “The Law of Common Binocular Direction”, states that the directions derived from the two eyes’ images will be perceived as if the observer is viewing the scene from a single vantage point between the two eyes. This point is called the “Cyclopean Eye”. More recently, Map and Ono (1999) have gone as far as to assert that the cyclopean eye is both a logical and functional necessity for judging the direction of objects.

In 2000, C.J. Casper and Raymond van Ee showed from their experimental findings that the cyclopean concept could also be explained by angular information without the need for cyclopean eye. They suggested that binocular perception is incompatible with vision from a single vantage point and the concept of the cyclopean eye is “sometimes inappropriate and always irrelevant” as far as vision is concerned.

When we understand SSSRD and the cortex eye and how the two eyes coordinate, we can clearly observe that the comments made by all the previously mentioned people are not well founded, mainly due to those individuals not fully understanding the function of the cortex eye. It plays a very important function in vision science by creating the mathematical structure that allows depth perception to be judged. Previously illustrated, the vantage angle of each eye is retained from a single vantage point of the cortex eye. The purpose of the cortex eye is not for visual direction and it is certainly not ‘irrelevant’ as far as vision is concerned. As we have observed, the function of the cortex eye works in complete coordination with all the other functions in the visual process, a notion pervasively illustrated and explained throughout this book.

Figure 6.1 is an example of what Hering correctly, but unknowingly, observed in the context of SSSRD and the cortex eye. When we observe these targets in the context of SSSRD and the cortex eye, the black spot on the pane of glass is ‘F’ and it is aligned with the distant tree ‘D’ with only the left eye. ‘C’ is the house and it is aligned with ‘F’, the black spot, with only the right eye. ‘F’, ‘C’, and ‘D’ are each viewed as if aligned in a straight-ahead direction, when ‘F’ is the point of focus. Hering interpreted this observation as if the house and tree were viewed from a single location. The observation was correct but could not be logically explained. The only explanation for this observation can be derived by first gaining a complete understanding of SSSRD in conjunction with the cortex eye.

Figure 6.1: Hering’s observation, in the context of SSSRD and the cortex eye.

The house ‘C’ is located on the visual axis of the right eye, VR, farther than the fixation point. The tree ‘D’ is located on the visual axis of the left eye, VL1, farther than the fixation point, which is signified as ‘F’ in the diagram. Both VR and VL1 are the sections of the visual axis after they intersect and pass through the fixation point ‘F’. This is how the black spot, the house, and the tree, were all observed aligned by Hering. In SSSRD combined with the cyclopean eye, the rotation of the visual axes to a central position results in these three targets being viewed in a straight-ahead direction in the cortex eye. This occurs because the house and tree are selectively located on the visual axis of each eye.

We have observed and proved this process by natural observation, SSSRD, occlusion, and the function of the cortex eye. When we examine Hering’s observations in the context of SSSRD and the cortex eye, it will become clear that they are correct but misconstrued, as previously illustrated in the cortex eye as an observation farther than the fixation point. The cyclopean eye, as described by Hering, cannot be a law of common binocular visual direction.

‘F’ is the black spot on the pane of glass, ‘C’ is the tree, and ‘D’ represents the house. If we were driving from point ‘F’ to point ‘D’, we would not be driving in the same visual direction as point ‘C’. Similarly, if we were driving in the direction of point ‘C’, we would not be driving in the same direction as point ‘D’. In the cortex eye, these three points appear to be in the same straight-ahead direction; but they are not. The tree and the house are selectively positioned farther than the fixation point, on the visual axes of the right and left eye. When the two visual axes in the cortex eye rotate and become a single axis on pivot ‘F’, the black spot, the fixation point, ‘C’ and ‘D’, appear to be in a straight-ahead direction. However, these targets could be tens of metres apart in opposite directions and visually we never use a target farther than the fixation point to judge visual direction. 

As previously shown in the mathematical structure of depth perception, the purpose of the function of the cortex eye is principally for computing depth perception, not to direct visual direction. Targets in space are viewed out of position in the cortex eye and the reason for this is to create a mathematical structure by which depth and distance judgement is computed by the brain and not for the judgement of visual direction. The rotation of the visual axes in the cortex eye is tiny in the context of the entire visual field, in particular nearer than the fixation point. Farther than the fixation point, it can be very large, as already illustrated in figure 5.12. This proven fact rules out any possibility of the cortex eye playing any part in visual direction.

The object of our visual direction is always the fixation point, but targets farther than the fixation point are never the objects of our visual direction, even though targets are viewed out of position in the cortex eye. In isolation, they are still viewed at the exact vantage angle of each eye relative to the fixation point from a central location between the two eyes. The cortex eye is the eye the brain creates in the visual cortex and its location is the centre relative to the two eyes. It is vision from a single vantage point but retains the vantage angle direction of all targets viewed by each individual eye yet plays virtually no role in visual direction.

The rotation of the axes in the cortex eye, to form this single eye, does not interfere with visual direction or with the vantage-viewing angle of each eye being maintained, particularly in the largest retinal-section of the dominant eye, nearer than the fixation point. This is achieved by the way the overlap in the cortex eye occurs. All targets in the area of section A, which overlaps section B, are still viewed in the visual direction of the dominant eye. Consequently, the dominant retinal-section is always the largest retinal-section, nearer than the fixation point. It is always constant and it is from this largest retinal dominant sectional area that our absolute visual direction is judged. Without the dominant eye and the way it is structured as an integral part of the visual system, we would be unable to perform tasks that require higher levels of visual accuracy.

The dominant eye

The coordination of SSSRD and the cortex eye logically explains another of the most profound problems that has been debated for many decades, visual direction. Similar to our approach to stereopsis, we followed a misguided path in trying to understand stereo-vision by observing random dot stereograms in the same way we followed a misguided path by trying to understand visual direction as a cyclopean phenomenon.

In 1903, Rosenbach discovered that everyone has a dominant eye, even though both eyes could have equal vision. This was a very significant discovery, the importance of which has never been fully understood or elaborated in the scientific sphere. Rosenbach used a simple sighting test, with both eyes open, the subjects were requested to aim at a distant object using their index finger. He discovered that most people preferred the image of one eye to that of the other. The dominant eye was identified by alternate occlusion, when viewing with the dominant eye, the index finger and the target are aligned, but when viewing with the other eye, the finger appeared offset.

Almost three decades later, Hillemanns confirmed the findings of Rosenbach in 1927. His study proved that approximately 40% of non-strabismus people were right-eye dominant, while approximately 20% were left-eye dominant, with the remaining 40% uncertain. Since then, many other analysts have substantially confirmed these results, including Coren & Kaplan (1993), Crider (1994) and Porac & Cohan (1996).

Using different methods, some of the most notable tests are the “the Freiburg Ocular Prevalence Test” and the “Haase Stereo-balance Test”. In 1994, Lang proposed that prevalence of one eye is due to partial suppression of the other eye, which renders double images on the border of Panum’s areas unremarkable. What is very surprising about these results is that the positive aspects of having a dominant eye are largely ignored. In fact, Haase’s assertion was that ocular prevalence can be and should be eliminated by phoria-correcting prisms, in patients who suffer from eyestrain. Lang suggested that ocular prevalence may be due to partial suppression of one eye and this helps to disregard double images at stereo-disparities close to the limits of Panum’s area.

As important as the dominant eye is, nobody has ever defined its extent and boundaries, or explained the principal reason as to why it is dominant. Through SSSRD, we can completely understand how and why the dominant eye is dominant. The dominant eye controls the largest retinal-section nearer than the fixation point. For a right-eye dominant person, this retinal-section is section A1 and it extends from the horizontal boundary G to the retinal-section boundary VL (the visual axis of the left eye nearer than the fixation point). I only became aware of the importance of the dominant eye during my research in separate sectional suppression and retinal dominance, in particular when examining its role in visual direction. The cortex eye plays a limited role in angular visual direction in the sense that it creates different disparities at different angular views, but it plays no role in absolute visual direction: the dominant eye plays the lead role in absolute visual direction.

As illustrated in SSSRD and the cortex eye, in three-dimensional space the vantage angle views of each eye’s direction are retained. Targets aligned with the left eye in section B with targets in section B1, retain their vantage angle and alignment relative to ‘F’ in the cortex eye. Likewise, targets aligned with the right eye in section A with targets in section A1, retain their vantage angle and alignment relative to ‘F’ in the cortex eye. However, the dominant eye controls the largest retinal-section, section A. Not only is it the largest retinal-section, but it controls the vital area which allows dominance to exist, and that area is the area that lies between the visual axes of the right and left eye, nearer than the fixation point. The left eye only controls this area when the person is left-eye dominant and as a result, direct and accurate visual direction in the cortex eye is only judged by one eye, and that eye is the dominant eye. All targets viewed in section A on both sides of the visual axis VR1, nearer than the fixation point of the dominant right eye, are aligned in the visual direction of that eye.

Targets are consistently viewed in the same visual direction in this area. For accurate alignment when aiming at a target (the fixation point), the object of aiming should be close to or on the visual axis of the dominant eye that is focused on the target. This instinctively occurs with left and right-eye dominant players of sports where intricate aiming is required, for example, in snooker, darts, and clay pigeon shooting, among others. Without a dominant eye, this would not be possible and we would have no visual accuracy or consistency in our visual direction.

As illustrated and reiterated throughout this book, the retinal-section of the dominant eye is the largest retinal-section nearer than the fixation point. The visual axis of the right eye nearer than the fixation point is located in this area and all targets on the left and right side of this axis are binocularly aligned with the target or fixation point. However, the dominant eye executes the alignment of these targets and, consequently, it dominates visual direction of practically all targets located nearer than the fixation point.

The target point in visual direction is always the fixation point. If we walk, run drive, or aim at any target in any sport, the fixation point is always the target point in visual direction. Similarly, most people’s actions are orientated from the side of the dominant eye. For example, most right-eye dominant people have a preference to use their right hand for writing and their right foot for kicking a football. Likewise, most left-eye dominant people have a preference to use their left hand and left foot in the same situations. Without a dominant eye, visual direction would be seriously impaired.

The dominant eye is not a condition that requires treatment, neither is it a mere byproduct of evolution, it is part of the actual evolution of the eye. The dominant eye, like the entire structure of the visual system, evolved over millions of years and as a result, it is integral with the fundamental mechanisms of SSSRD and the cortex eye. It is therefore a critical component of this structure and it is crucial that we understand its workings. In the cortex eye, part of the dominant retinal-section A overlaps section B, but the visual direction of all targets is retained in the overlap, so the function of the cortex eye in no way interferes with the visual direction of any target in the retinal-section of the dominant eye. Again, this is another example of the amazing coordination that is evident throughout the entire structure of the visual system.

To fully understand the importance of the dominant eye and the confines of its retinal-section, we must also understand how this retinal-section is incorporated in the function of the cortex eye. Figure 6.2A illustrates the retinal-section A, of a right-eye dominant person. It is the largest retinal-section nearer than the fixation point. It incorporates VR1, the visual axis of the dominant right eye, and it extends from the parallel focal plane at ‘G’ to the visual axis of the left eye, VL, nearer than the fixation point. It is the only retinal-section nearer than the fixation point, where targets can be aligned left and right of the fixation point with consistently accurate visual direction.

Figure 6.2: All targets in section A are in the in the visual direction of the right dominant eye

It is the only retinal-section nearer than the fixation point where targets can be aligned with the fixation point on the visual axis of the dominant right eye, without being viewed in double. The reason why this is so is that the visual axis of the dominant eye is not a retinal-section boundary, unlike the visual axis of the weaker eye, which is a retinal-section boundary.

When the function of the cortex eye occurs, the areas that lie between these two visual axes overlap, as evident in figure 6.2B. Consequently, this particular area of section A is overlapping with an area in section B when the two axes rotate to form a single axis. The overlap does not effect the dominance of the eye as the dominant right eye is still dominant in this overlap area, and the original vantage angle direction of all targets in figure 6.2A (in that entire retinal-section area) are accurately retained in figure 6.2B.

Visual direction is essential in order to allow us to correctly align two targets in space; that is to drive, to run, to walk, to aim at a target in space, or to point out a target or object in space for identification. In order to perform any of these tasks, we must have a true visual direction from point A to point B. Point A is the location of the observer and point B is the fixation point and the target of direction. For any animal to freely navigate with visual accuracy in space, to hunt and protect itself from other prey, they need a dominant eye, and without one, none of these feats would be possible. Targets farther than the fixation point play little or no part in visual direction, simply because the fixation point is always the target of our visual direction.

For a right-eye dominant person, section A (the retinal-section of the right eye) is the largest retinal-section nearer than the fixation point. Section B (the retinal-section of the weaker left eye) is the smallest retinal-section nearer than the fixation point. For this reason, the so-called ‘weaker eye’ cannot be the dominant eye. However, it is always dominant in it’s own retinal-section, in the same way the right and left eye are dominant in sections A1 and B1, farther than the fixation point. It is however, the dominance of the right eye in section A, which controls visual direction for a right-eye dominant person. We also have to remember that each eye is dominant to a lesser degree in as far as that the dominance is not noticed in all the other retinal-sections. The following illustrations help to explain the reasons for why this is so.   

Figure 6.3: Target in the visual direction of the left and right eyes.

In figure 6.3A, target 1 and target 2 are viewed ‘D1’ distance left, and right of ‘F’. In the cortex eye, in figure 6.3B, the targets are still viewed the same ‘D1’ distance left and right of the fixation point ‘F’. The left and right eyes view the two targets in the same visual direction relative to the fixation point ‘F’, before and after the function of the cortex eye. However, the two targets are viewed in different directions, not in a common direction.

The visual direction for a right-eye dominant person is always a target in section A of the dominant right eye. The reason for this is that we can only have one visual direction. The visual direction of the weaker left eye is very limited because its small retinal-section only extends to the visual axis of the left eye, VL. Targets are accurately aligned with the fixation point on or close to the visual axis VR1 of the dominant eye and this cannot occur on VL, because it is a retinal-section boundary, where targets are viewed in double or offset with the fixation point. 

Figure 6.4: Targets in the visual direction of the left eye, in section B/B1; targets in the visual direction of the right eye, in section A/A1.

Target 1 and target 4 are aligned with the left eye D1, ‘D2’ distance left, and right of ‘F’, in sections B and B1. Target 2 and target 3 are aligned with the right eye D1, ‘D2’ distance right, and left of ‘F’, in sections A and A1, in figure 6.4A. In the cortex eye, in figure 6.4B, the targets are still viewed the same ‘D1’ and ‘D2’ distance left and right of the fixation point ‘F’ with each eye. Target 1 and target 4 are aligned with the left eye D1, ‘D2’ distance left, and right of ‘F’, in sections B and B1 and are in the visual direction of the left eye. Target 2 and target 3 aligned with the right eye D1, ‘D2’ distance right, and left of ‘F’, in sections A and A1, and they are in the visual direction of the right eye. The left or right eye controls visual direction in all the retinal-section divisions, including the two monocular areas. In SSSRD and the cortex eye, targets in every retinal-section have the visual direction of the eye that they are viewed with, but as already stated, targets farther than the fixation point only play passive roles in visual direction. The dominant eye judges absolute visual direction.

A limited role is played by visual direction in section B of the left eye. On rare occasions, when it does play a role in visual direction (observed later in this chapter), it often causes confusion. The weaker eye as a result is the eye most prone to attack from a flying missile, be it a fly or piece of mud, and in particular if the missile comes from the dominant side. The dominant eye is the largest retinal-section and controls left and right of its visual axes and it always has more time to react. If both eyes controlled visual direction, then we would have constant confusion and visual inaccuracy: an unsolvable problem, similar to the theory of retinal correspondence.

Figure 6.5: Targets aligned straight in front of the eyes, not in the same visual direction.

The purpose of this figure is to dismiss those comments made over the years, including those made by Hering, that inferred that visual direction is in the so called ‘cyclopean eye’ and that it is the average of the two monocular visual directions of the two eyes. Target 1 is viewed ‘D1’ distance right of ‘F’ and ‘D1’ distance left of ‘F’ with both the left and the right eye. Therefore, it is in the average straight-ahead direction of the two monocular views, when with the focus on ‘F’ in figure 6.5A. However, target 1 is not viewed in a straight-ahead direction when ‘F’ is binocularly focused upon.

In the cortex eye in figure 6.5B, it is evident that it is viewed to be in a direction ‘D1’ distance left of ‘F’ with the dominant right eye. Target 1 is still viewed in the same visual direction with the dominant right eye only. This illustration also proves that visual direction of a target is not the average of the two eyes. Target 1 is in a straight-ahead visual direction with ‘F’, using the average of the two eyes, but it is not in a straight-ahead direction in the cortex eye. It is viewed only in the visual direction of the dominant right eye and the object of visual direction is always the fixation point. In figure 6.5, target 1 is a perfect example of why visual direction is not the average monocular location of objects in space. Target 1 is not on a visual axis; it is located between the two axes. Yet, its visual direction is in the view of the dominant right eye with the fixation point. This holds for all targets that lie between the visual axes of the left and right eyes, nearer than the fixation point. The three principle reasons why section A is the dominant area of the dominant eye are:

·    It is the largest retinal-section nearer than the fixation point.

·    It is the only retinal-section nearer than the fixation point in which the visual axis of the dominant eye is not a retinal boundary.

·    It is the only retinal-section nearer than the fixation point in which targets on the visual axis, or on either side of the visual axis, can only be viewed in the same visual direction in line with the fixation point.

Hering described in the ‘Law of Identical Visual Direction’ that all objects on the path of the chief rays to the fovea of the two eyes, appear to be in the same primary visual direction. He maintained that this relationship holds over the entire visual field for all points that occupy the central portion of the retinas. In other words, Hering is saying that all objects on the visual axes of both the left and right eyes appear to be in the same visual direction. It is true that targets appear to be in the same visual direction when they are located on the visual axes of both eyes, nearer or farther than the fixation point, but this is not the entire visual field. In fact, the visual axes are only a tiny part of the visual field. The cortex eye can generally not judge visual direction without causing total confusion. In the context of SSSRD and the cortex eye, there are numerous other constraints, as previously illustrated in this book. For example, no target can be correctly aligned with the fixation point on the visual axis of the left eye, nearer than the fixation point, because this is a retinal-section boundary.

No target can be correctly aligned with the fixation point on the visual axis of the right eye, when it is located farther than the fixation point, because this axis is also a retinal-section boundary. As already illustrated in describing SSSRD and the function of the cortex eye, the vantage angle view of each eye before and after the function of the cortex eye, is retained in the single image. The object of visual direction is always the fixation point or a target left or right of the fixation point. The dominant eye can only judge the visual direction to such a target because it can accurately judge the visual direction of objects moving left or right of the fixation point. As such, no point can be aligned with the fixation point with the average direction of both eyes. Any point aligned with the fixation point nearer than the fixation point is viewed only by the visual direction of the dominant eye.

Motion & Driving

We can experience close range cortex flow in motion in a very dramatic way. The figure above illustrates that when a front seat passenger in a car traveling on a lined roadway, places a small black sticker ‘F’ on the window screen, aligned with the centre dotted line on the roadway. When sitting back in the passenger seat and focusing on the black spot, the passenger will experience a dramatic display of cortex optic flow. In figure 6.11B, the passenger will observe that the sidelines on the road are actually crossing each other and the centre dotted line appears to be dramatically approaching from the left side. This is the overlap in the cortex eye. The centre dotted line is in the centre of the intersecting visual axes, and is viewed coming from a direction farther than the line on the left of the roadway.


Figure 6.11: The overlap that occurs in the cortex eye creates a constant optic flow that accelerates with motion.
 

Optic flow generated by the cortex eye is occurring all the time, even when we are static, and it greatly accelerates when in motion, for example, when driving, running, cycling or walking. However, it naturally occurs in a less dramatic way than illustrated, so much so that we do not even notice it. When we examine optic flow in the cortex eye in a very dramatic way, such when driving, we can clearly observe that there is no value to be gained from optic flow for any kind of directional purposes. The benefit of cortex flow in the optic array is created by the acceleration of the mathematical process in perceiving depth and distance judgement. On closer observation, it is noted that the cortex flow is equivalent to the speed of motion. The crossed lines on the roadway mirror the structure of the cortex eye as they are observed to approach faster as the car accelerates. This means the mathematical computations of depth perception acceleration are comparable to our speed in motion. In other words, visual accuracy is correlated with speed in motion. This explains our visual accuracy in motion and our visual confidence when, for example, driving a car at 100km per hour.

A bird can pick up a tiny crumb or fly through a densely branched tree at full flight, yet while static on the ground it is vulnerable to preying cats or dogs. Our speed in focusing increases proportionally with the speed in motion even if the eyes are in a fixed distance position, which is what occurs when driving in a car. This in turn increases the speed of the mathematical processing, which in turn proportionally increases our depth and distance judgement, but the dominant eye always controls the accuracy of visual direction. Figure 6.11 illustrates the dramatically changing optic flow of the cortex eye.

Another new debate arises from the correlation with accuracy of vision and speed in motion: the reflexes of any animal must match and react to their mathematical perception of speed. In other words, it is dangerous to feel visually comfortable driving a car at speed if our reflexes are not sharp enough to be compatible with that speed when the need arises. It is also important for the reaction of the vehicle to be completely in tune with our reflexes. There is also another obviously natural compensation regarding this correlation that occurs: age.

As people become older, their reflexes slow but they also instinctively tend to drive slower. Increases in the speed of the mathematical processing which in turn proportionally increases depth and distance judgement also explains the reason why fast moving animals such as birds with small binocular overlap and large monocular areas have excellent vision when in motion.


FIG A illustrates a right eyed dominant person driving on the right hand side of the road. All the oncoming traffic on the left hand side of the road are viewed in a different visual direction.
FIG B illustrates a right eyed dominant person driving on the left hand side of the road. All the oncoming traffic are viewed in the same visual direction of the right eye. As a result this makes it safer for a right eyed dominant person to drive on the left hand side of the road as no visual direction error can occur and the vast majority of people are right eyed dominant.

It is safer to drive on the left side of road than on the right side of the road, in particular on country roads. It is difficult to judge from statistics on road safety as there are large discrepancies in the death toll from country to country across the world.

These discrepancies differ for many reasons for example, urban and rural divide, road networks, populations, rules and regulations, vehicle condition. One major reason is motorways as motorways are vastly more safer to drive on than country roads, some statistics say 10 times safer as all traffic is travelling the one way and there is no oncoming traffic.

If we compare comparative countries for example the United Kingdom where they drive on the left and France who drive on the right. In the United Kingdom the death toll is 2.9 and 5.1 per 100,000 population and 100,000 vehicles respectively. In France the death toll is 5.1 and 7.6 per 100,000 population and vehicles respectively.

In the developed world if we combine three comparative countries with large populations such as the United Kingdom, Japan, and Australia, which all drive on the left. The death toll is on average is 4.2 and 8.2 per 100,000 population and per 100,000 vehicles respectively.

Compared with the United States which drives on the right the death toll is 10.6 and 12.9 per 100,000 population and per 100,000 vehicles respectively.

When compared with Europe as a whole where the vast majority of the countries also drive on the right side the death toll is 9.3 and 19 per 100,000 respectively. These figures do suggest that the visual direction error is significantly reflected in the death toll in these comparative countries in the developed world. In fact tens of thousands of lives could be saved every year if countries worldwide drove on the left hand side of the road. There is no doubt that visually it is safer to drive on the left hand side of the road. The most vulnerable people to visual direction error on these roads in particular country roads are pedestrians and cyclists. These people should be very careful as they are exposed to great dangers as they are in the visual direction error area of the drivers left eye. These fatalities of pedestrians and cyclists are also reflected in statistics worldwide on these roads.

By understanding (S.S.S.R.D. and the cortex eye) we know that visual perception accelerates with motion but our reflexes do not. This is something that drivers do not understand.

In real life practically everybody at some stage of their life have had an experience where they had an accident even a minor accident when in motion, they actually perceive everything that occurs during the accident but are unable to react quick enough to prevent it. So driving fast is very dangerous and is reflected in traffic accident deaths and injuries statistics.

About the Author

John has a successful background in architecture, engineering, entrepreneurship and creating inventions.

From his early beginnings in a family business of quarrying, where he manufactured GRC (glass fibre reinforced cement) products and building materials, he went on to work in the field of civil engineering. He invented the means by which GRC could be void formed and the patents were tested and financed by the Irish Institute of Industrial Research and Standards, and the products are still being produced after thirty-five years. All of his properties over the years are self-built and designed.

As regards visual perception, John has no professional background as such. However, his interest in the sport of golf was key to him discovering that through natural observation tests he could examine the reasoning how and why people misaligned targets in such sports where there is such a fine line of error in aiming and lining up targets. The observation of birds in particular fascinated him, purely because they hold such amazing visual accuracy while in motion yet have relatively poor visual accuracy and fall vulnerable to predators when static. His observation tests soon proved that motion for an animal with a small binocular overlap was essential to their being, while animals of prey required only the slightest movement of the eyes to create motion.

John has dedicated the last twenty years to the study of how our eyes see the world around us, documenting his work through natural observation and occlusion tests in three-dimensional space.

John has published another book, detailing the detrimental effect that modern technology (ie. flat screens and handheld devices) on the developing vision of young children. His most recent publication is now available and is self-stated as The Bible of binocular and monocular perception.

Pool & Snooker

The dominant right eye is always the true source of visual direction and the focal point is always the target of visual direction. Visual direction errors further than the focal point rarely occur. In the sports of pool and snooker however, a visual direction error problem occurs further than the focal point with a particular shot even on a small pool table.

This error occurs when the target ball the white ball is aimed to hit an object ball (black) to a right hand pocket on the pool or snooker table particularly a long shot. The very same error problem exists for a left eyed dominant player playing to a pocket on the left hand side of the table. This shot is the most frequently missed shot in pool or snooker. World class players have often unknowingly referred to this error as an optical illusion, because they simply cannot explain it.

 

FIG 3-13 above illustrates the white ball being aimed to strike the black ball to the bottom right pocket.

The aim of the dominant right eye is always correct but in this case when the white ball is focused on to strike the object ball (black), the pocket is viewed in the visual direction of the left eye in the dominant retinal sectional area of the left eye. This results in the player shooting to the left edge of the pocket and not the center and usually a missed shot. (The same visual error occurs in reverse, for a left eyed dominant player.)

This error can be observed by any right eyed dominant person when aiming this shot by closing the left eye, the right eye observes the pocket having moved slightly outwards in the correct location. This is the reason why unknowingly this is the most frequently missed shot in pool and snooker.

Players in all sports, in particular football players and goalkeepers, should be aware of change of visual direction, as quick change in visual direction results in visual direction error. For example a quick change from right to left for a right eyed dominant player and from left to right for a left eyed dominant player. For this reason all these sports people unknowingly are vulnerable to visual direction error. All the great superstars in sport unknowingly derive their talent from a natural instinctive ability to expose their opponents visual direction error.

Fortunes are spent on training and coaching but no attention is paid to coaching in visual direction error, which is one of the most important coaching areas in sports. The reason being that simply nobody is aware of visual direction error.

The Science

Changes in dominance: Clay Pigeon Shooting

When eye dominance changes from one eye to the other, errors occur in the accuracy of visual direction. These errors can arise when the eyes change their focus from one fixation point to another, or when the fixation point is moving. In such situations nearer targets can be observed to in different visual directions.

This phenomenon occurs in everyday life, albeit frequently unnoticed, but in the art of clay-shooting the problem of changing dominance has been well documented by Pete Blakeley. Since 1998, Pete Blakeley has been the shooting coach at one of the most prestigious gun clubs in the world, the Dallas Gun Club in Lewisville, Texas. His 2003 book, “Successful Shotgunning, is considered the most elaborate and definitive guide to ‘shotgunning’ ever written. Blakeley’s description of the main problem affecting shooters is that when a right-eye dominant person takes aim at clays coming from a particular direction, dominance switches from the right eye to the left eye, resulting in a misaligned shot. Blakeley’s solution to this problem was to close or shut off the weaker eye, just before the shot is taken, thereby ensuring that the aim of the gun was that of the dominant eye.

The problem manifested itself when the clay was coming from a certain direction. The direction he made particular reference to was a left-to-right direction of the clay, for a right-eye dominant person. The same problem exists when the clay is coming from a right-to-left direction for a left-eye dominant person, and the reason for both is also exactly the same, when we examine the problem in the context of SSSRD. The common outcome of this is a missed shot and the shot is usually fired behind the clay target. Blakeley’s observations are completely consistent with the structure of SSSRD and the function of the cortex eye.

The barrel of the gun does change from the aim of the left eye, to the aim of the right eye, where there lies a large disparity, as illustrated by targets passing over the retinal-section boundary, VL. Pete Blakeley, in documenting this problem, unknowingly identifies this retinal boundary in a real life experience, where in specific circumstances, visual direction is compromised by a breakdown in the dominance of the dominant eye. In SSSRD, the binocular single image consists of monocular inputs from both eyes. The monocular input of the dominant eye is the single largest input area, section A, nearer than the fixation point, and it extends to the visual axis of the left eye, VL, nearer than the fixation point. It is thus the only monocular area wherein the fixation point can be accurately and directly aimed at, while at the same time, the aiming object is always on VR1, and remains in the same monocular area. This is because the visual axis of the right eye, VR1, is nearer than the fixation point, unlike VL, and is not a retinal-section boundary.

A right-eye dominant person takes for granted the accurate identification of an object by pointing directly at it, but this aspect of vision obviously evolved, like all other aspects of the visual system, over millions of years. The problem was solved by the creation of the largest retinal-section, controlled by the dominant eye. That is the identification of a selective object by simply pointing or aiming at it. We can appreciate this when we simply point a finger at a target in space, but the view of the finger by the eye that is not dominant appears to be substantially offset to the target. We can observe this phenomenon by pointing a very fine pin at another pin situated only a few millimetres away, the offset is observed in exactly the same way.

Figure 6.6: Clay pigeon shooting highlights the confusion caused by a change in dominance between the two eyes. 

Pete Blakeley’s observations are correct. What’s actually occurring is that when the clay is coming from a right-to-left direction (for a right-eye dominant person), the gun can be aimed behind the target, and then lead the target (the target being the fixation point) to make an accurate shot and still remain in the sectional view of the dominant right eye (section A1). The gun does not cross the visual axis of the left eye VL, into section B, the monocular-section of the left eye, and it always remains in section A. In figure 6.6, the shotgun is firstly aimed behind the moving target. As the shotgun crosses the visual axis of the right eye to lead the target, it remains in section A, the retinal-section of the right eye.

When the clay is coming from a left-to-right direction (the shotgun again starts behind the clay target), it is left of the visual axis VL, in section B1, and in the monocular view of the left eye. The aim of the shotgun has to lead the moving target at some time in order to make an accurate shot. Thus, in effect, the shotgun has to be aimed slightly ahead or right of the moving clay target. The moment that the gun is viewed right of the target it crosses into the monocular view of the dominant right eye, having crossed the retinal-section boundary VL, into section A. The gun instantly appears to be aiming behind the target (fixation point), so confusion arises. This usually results in a miss and the shot is usually fired behind the clay target, as mentioned previously. Therefore, the barrel of the gun changes from the aim of the left eye to the aim of the right eye, where there lies a large disparity in the visual direction of the two eyes. Directions 1 and 2 of the left eye and direction 3 of the right eye, on the right side of the previous figure, highlight this.

As illustrated with targets passing over a retinal-section boundary, no target can be aligned without first being viewed in double on VL, the visual axis of the left eye nearer than the fixation point. However, this is not so for VR1, the visual axis of the right eye nearer than the fixation point. This visual axis is not a retinal-section boundary and is incorporated into a larger retinal-section, which renders it as the dominant eye. The opposite is true for a left-eye dominant person; the visual axis VL is not a retinal-section boundary and it is incorporated into a larger retinal-section, which renders it the dominant eye.

Pete Blakeley, in documenting this problem in clay target shooting, unknowingly identifies a real-life experience where the retinal-section boundary VL - the visual axis of the left eye in the cortex eye nearer than the fixation point - is observed. The example also highlights a situation whereby the visual direction of the dominant eye is affected by the encroachment of the dominance of the weaker eye in unusual circumstances. This clearly affects the normally accurate visual direction of the dominant eye. It is also worth noting in the context of visual direction in SSSRD, those retinal-section boundaries, in particular VL, of the weaker eye, and VR1, of the dominant eye, are very important in understanding how to insure visual accuracy. It is not surprising that in clay pigeon shooting, the majority of left-eye dominant people instinctively fire off their left shoulder and the majority of right-eye dominant people instinctively fire off their right shoulder. As previously illustrated, the dominant eye controls the largest retinal-section nearer than the fixation point (section A) and enables visual direction to be stable in our visual world. The dominant right eye views the visual directions of targets in section A1. Visual direction is judged from point A to point B (the fixation point). The targets in section A1 farther than the fixation point play no role in visual direction, only in exceptional circumstances.

The directions of targets however, approaching or moving away from that retinal-section, are more accurately judged than the directions of moving targets in the other two retinal-sections in the binocular fields, B and B1. The directions of targets in these two areas are judged by the visual direction of the left eye. As aforementioned, the left eye in section B, nearer than the fixation point, can in exceptional circumstances, become the dominant eye. Section B1, like section A1 farther than the fixation point, plays no role in visual direction other than movement of targets in that retinal-section that are located in the same visual direction of the left eye.

At this point, it must be stated and clarified that contrary to conventional opinion; visual direction is not the average of the two monocular views. Visual direction has nothing to do with the image of an object that is viewed by each eye being impossible to align an image inside of Panum’s fusional area, with images outside. It has nothing to do with one of the double images taking precedence or one being ignored or suppressed. The dominant retinal-section developed with the natural evolution of the visual system.

Without a dominant eye, it would be impossible to play fast outdoor ball sports like hurling, cricket, or tennis, not to mention the difficulties that would arise in our ability to perform everyday tasks such as driving a car, or operating machinery that requires visual accuracy. As aforementioned, there is no fusion in the single image and there are no overlapping visual fields. The only small overlap that occurs is in the binocular single image and this results from the function of the cortex eye. The overlapping areas are sections of separate retinal-sections of opposite eyes, so fusion and correspondence play no part in the design and creation of the single binocular image.

The above is an excerpt from the ground-breaking book "SSSRD and the Cortex Eye" (Choice Publishing, 1st edition 2009)

Maths

Target 1 and target 2 are viewed D1 left, right of F with the monocular view of the left, and right eye, than the fixation point. Target 1 is only viewed with the left eye because it is occluded from the view of the right eye and target 2 is only viewed with the right eye as it is occluded from the view of the left eye. In figure 5.16B, the right, and left eye view target 3, and target 4, farther than the fixation point. When F is focused upon, target 1 and target 2, and target 3 and target 4, are viewed in the cortex eye the same D1, D2 distance (minus D distance) left and right of F , nearer and farther than the fixation point. They are viewed in the same locations as they would if the occlusion were not present, in figure 5.16B.

Figure 5.16: Why each axis has a separate rotation.

The left and right eyes view target 1 and target 2 separately and not binocularly. They have moved the same 1/2 D distance with the rotation of the visual axes of the left and right eyes. It proves that the visual axis of each eye rotates to a central location independently and it proves that each eye’s view has a separate, mathematical computation for the measurement of depth nearer to the fixation point. This diagram is also important in proving the mathematical computation of targets, located in the monocular areas occluded by the nose nearer than the fixation point, documented later in this chapter.

In figure 5.17, target 3 and target 4 are viewed D2 distance left, right of F with the monocular view of the right, and left eye, farther than the fixation point. Target 3 is only viewed with the right eye as it is occluded from the view of the left eye, and likewise, target 4 is only viewed with the left eye because it is occluded from the view of the right eye. In figure 5.17A, target 1 and target 2 are viewed D1 distance left, right of F by the right, and left eye, nearer than the fixation point. When F is focused on in the cortex eye, the two sets of targets, target 1 and target 2, and target 3 and target 4, are viewed the same D1, D2 distance left, and right of F , minus D , respectively, nearer and farther than the fixation point.


Figure 5.17: Each axis has a separate rotation.
 

Target 3 and target 4 are viewed in the same locations if the occlusions are not present, in figure 5.17B. Target 3 and target 4 and are viewed separately, not binocularly, by the right and left eye. They move the same 1/2 D distance with the rotation of the visual axes of each eye, and this proves that each eye’s view has a separate mathematical composition for the measurement of depth, both nearer and farther than the fixation point.

Disparity movement creates our visual perception of depth in our three-dimensional world. This is achieved primarily by the rotation of the visual axes of the right eye and the left eye, as they intersect and pass though the fixation point, when they come together as a single central axis in the cortex eye. The distance between these axes is the disparity, which equals the perceived movement between objects at their precise locations in depth along these axes, on either side of the retinal-section boundaries VL (the visual axis of the left eye nearer than the fixation point) and VR (the visual axis of the right eye farther than the fixation point). Unlike retinal disparity, the disparity created in SSSRD is the different angle that each separate, retinal area is viewed at and the movement of all these retinal-sections is created by the rotation of the visual axes in the cortex eye. This movement extends right into the distance for as far as the two eyes can see with clarity. The pivot on which the visual axes rotate is the fixation point. This rotation results in a disparity movement between all targets in right and left retinal-sections. The disparity movement is evident during every change in the fixation point. It becomes dramatically evident during monocular interchange whereby targets change from the monocular area of one eye to an opposite monocular area of the other eye.

As soon as the eyes converge on a fixation point, the visual field divides into six separate, opposite monocular sections; A and A1 of the right eye, B and B1 of the left eye, and two monocular sections of the left and right eyes, the latter two resulting from the occlusion of the nose. At the same moment fixation occurs, the two axes that intersect and pass through the fixation point rotate clockwise and anti-clockwise to form a single central axis. The pivot of this rotation is the fixation point. The central axis consists of the two entire visual axes, which includes the two retinal boundaries VL and VR. As illustrated, VL and VR are part of the visual axes of the left and right eyes nearer and farther than the fixation point, respectively.

There is no correspondence or matching problem in the single image, including in the overlapping area. Every target and part of the image is viewed separately by each eye, in opposite, separate, monocular areas, simultaneously in the cortex eye. Similarly, the same eye also separately views all targets in the area of the binocular single image that lies between the intersecting visual axes as they were before the overlap that occurs with the function of the cortex eye. Because of the rotation, all targets on opposite sides of the retinal boundaries VL and VR are perceived to be closer together in the single image (than they are observed by the monocular view of either eye) nearer and farther than the fixation point. The distance that they are perceived to be closer together is D distance, which equals the rotation of the visual axes at their depth locations nearer and farther than the fixation point. This D distance is the sum of two 1/2 D distance movements of each axis. The only two retinal-sections where this does not occur are the two monocular areas farther than the fixation point (illustrated later in this chapter, using occlusion).

The left monocular area moves with the anti-clockwise rotation of the left visual axis and the right monocular area moves with the clockwise rotation of the right visual axis. This in turn results in targets in these two areas moving outwards, farther than the fixation point, which is the opposite directional movement to that of all the other targets in the binocular field nearer than the fixation point. The near side of the fixation point, the monocular and binocular areas are viewed by the same eye as they adjoin the retinal-sections of section B and section A in the binocular field, which are both viewed by the left and right eyes, respectively. As a result, all targets move inwards with the rotation of the visual axes nearer than the fixation point. In short, all retinal-sections in the binocular field and monocular areas, including occluded zones in these areas, move 1/2 D distance with the rotation of the visual axis of the eye that they are viewed with.

The rotation of the visual axes in the cortex eye creates a very precise movement change in the already assembled dominant retinal-sections. This movement change creates a change in position of all targets in a mathematical structure by which depth and distance judgement is coded by the brain, in an already assembled stereo single image. As illustrated, this movement change in targets resulting from the rotation of the visual axes in the cortex eye is not restricted to the binocular field and it occurs in the monocular areas. This means that depth and distance judgements are measured in the monocular areas in exactly the same way as in the binocular areas and this proves that targets in the monocular areas are linked to the rotation of each individual axis in the same way as targets in the binocular field.

The eyes converge to different degrees in order to focus on a near or far target. By understanding SSSRD and how these four opposite, separate and monocular retinal areas come together in the cortex eye to form BSV, we can logically understand and prove the mathematical process by natural observation. All the dominant snapshot images of both eyes representing the capacity of one single eye are precisely assembled in the visual cortex before the function of the cortex eye occurs. Integral to this assembly are the precise original locations of the entire two visual axes when all the separate snapshots of the retinal-sections of both eyes were taken. The spines of these retinal-sections are the visual axes as their movement in the rotation of the axes in the cortex eye dictates the movement of all retinal-section divisions, creating the mathematical structure by which depth perception is measured.

The assembly of snapshots viewed at different angles is a stereo image. The function of the cortex eye results in the two visual axes rotating 1/2 D distance in clockwise and anti-clockwise directions to become a straight central axis. The pivot of their rotation is the fixation point. The rotation is a very precise and accurate movement. Each of the axes moves exactly the same distance, which is 1/2 D distance in opposite directions. All targets in the dominant retinal-section snapshot areas of the right eye move 1/2 D distance relative to their depth locations, anti-clockwise with the visual axis of the left eye. All targets in the dominant retinal-section snapshot areas of the left eye move 1/2 D distance relative to their depth locations, anti-clockwise with the visual axis of the right eye. The equal rotation of each axis to a single central axis not only means that the convergent angle of each eye is accurately measured, but the 1/2 D distance movement of every target in each sectional area of each eye is accurately recorded during every fixation. The clockwise and anti-clockwise rotation in the cortex eye during every fixation, results in continuous motion in an already created stereo image. This continuous motion is always occurring with the slightest movement of the eye, even when the head is in a static position. The movement of the eye creates a new mathematically structured movement in the visual field. Occluded targets move in opposite 1/2 Ddirections to all other targets in the retinal-section that they are occluded in. The opposite 1/2 Dmovements arise because they are attached to the opposite visual axis, but they have the same structured, mathematically computed movement in the visual field. The convergent angle of each eye is equal, nearer and farther than the fixation point in the cortex eye, as opposite angles are equal. Consequently, the same mathematical computation exists inversely nearer and farther than the fixation point, when the visual axes intersect and pass through it.

All of these proven observations create a logical understanding as to how the stereo-image is formed, how the cortex eye functions, how occlusions occur, how transparency occurs, how visual direction is judged, how optic flow is created and, most important of all, how the brain can mathematically compute our depth perception.

In figure 5.19, the two eyes focus on F and the distances of target 1 and target 2 (located nearer than F and target 3 and target 4 (located further than F ) are unknown. When the function of the cortex eye occurs, the two visual axes rotate clockwise and anti-clockwise to become a central axis. For the two axes to become one central axis, the convergent angles of the two eyes on F have to close to zero. This means the movement of the two axes to a central location and the closing of the angle of convergence and that the opposite angle is registered in the brain.


Figure 5.19: Depth measurements of targets nearer and farther than the fixation point.
 

The convergent angle of each eye is accurately registered during each fixation. The 1/2 D distance rotation, combined with the convergent angle of each eye, creates a mathematical process by which the brain can compute depth in three-dimensional space. This diagram illustrates the structure of this mathematical process in the binocular field, nearer and farther than the fixation point. In figure 5.19A, the convergent angle of target 1 is angle A and the converging angle of target 2 is angle B. Target 1 has a rotational movement of 1/2 Dand this supplies a mathematical computation to the brain. The perpendicular distance of target 1 to the fixation point equals [1/2 D divided by tan of angle b and the distance between target 2 and the fixation point is equal to [1/2 D divided by tan of angle a ].

For targets farther than the fixation point, the mathematical computation is inversed. That is the distance measurements are from the focal plane not the fixation point. Target 3 has a rotational movement of 1/2 D , this supplies a mathematical computation to the brain that the distance of target 3 from the focal plane. The following figure 5.19A, illustrates how the visual system, knowing the converging angle and the 1/2 Drotation distance of each target, is enabled to compute much more information other than the perpendicular distance to and from the fixation point regarding these same targets.


Figure 5.19A: The vantage angle view of a target by each eye is computed.
 

The four targets above are at different depth locations nearer and farther than the fixation point. Target 1 and target 4 rotate anti-clockwise, 1/2 D distance with the visual axis of the left eye, while target 2 and target 3 rotate clockwise with the rotation of the visual axis of the right eye. This rotational movement creates the mathematical computation of a right angle at the depth location of each target, the apex of each triangle being the convergence of each eye at the fixation point. All the right angle triangles are different, but the rotation of the axes supplies the visual system with accurate measurements of all the angles and the sides of each triangle.

The 1/2 Drotational movement supplies the dimensions of the base of each triangle at its depth location, nearer and farther than the fixation point. The same rotational movement supplies the converging angle of each eye. The formula [1/2 D divided by tan of the angle] is used for each converging angle, and supplies the perpendicular distance of all the targets nearer, and inversely farther than, the fixation point. In turn, this computation supplies the visual system with the vantage angle distance, C, at which each target is viewed at its depth location. It also supplies the distance of the slope (hypotenuse) of each target at its depth location (the square of the other two sides equals the square of the hypotenuse).

Our perception of the surfaces and textures of all targets have hundreds and thousands of variations in every fixation. The same mathematical computation exists for every target, texture, and surface in that split second when dominant, separate, retinal-section images are transmitted to the visual cortex, and the function of the cortex eye occurs. We will also observe later in this chapter, that the same mathematical computation also exists for all targets in the two monocular retinal-sections and for all targets in occlusion zones in all retinal-sectioned areas.

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